“Soil, climate, vegetation, and fauna are no mere background to human cultures, but the very seed-bed in which they grow and which in turn they have helped to form”
Grahame Clark, Archaeology and Society (London: Methuen, 1957, 175-6)
Here we focus on palaeobotany, ethnoarchaeology, soil science, and the study of animal remains and human osteoarchaeology. These main strands provide the basis of stand-alone research programme and contributions to multi-disciplinary teams. They also form key units in a number of undergraduate courses and are core topics of specialized postgraduate courses.