I am an evolutionary palaeoecologist with broad research interests encompassing the use of faunas in reconstructing Pleistocene and Holocene ecologies (and increasingly from the Neogene), understanding the nature, timing and location of ice age refugia for species, and building and testing molecular biogeographical hypotheses on how species respond to environmental change (in collaboration with ancient DNA practitioners). I am also interested in the relationship between species and subspecies level evolution and extinction during the Quaternary; and more recently the use of Quaternary data in conservation biology.